Paper written in 2008, just before the market crash, Subject what it would take to convert personal transportation from petroleum to electric power.


The following text in taken from a paper I write in 2008 when it looked like Gasoline might hit $5.00 a gallon by the end of the year and it looked like we could be running out of oil. Obviously, that did not happen because a couple of months latter the Market crashed and a project I was about to finish — was finished as well as all capital dried up and I lost close to $500,000 of investment of which this paper was only a part.  The logic and engineer is still sound today although the financial numbers would need to be adjusted.  Attached at the end are a copy of the paper and the related power point presentation.

There are almost 250 million vehicles (cars, pickup trucks and SUV’s) on U. S. roads used for personal transportation. They all use some form of ICE as the power source.  They also all use some derivative of petroleum as the fuel i.e. gasoline, E85 or diesel fuel and thereby emit million of tons of CO2 into the atmosphere (about 20 lbs of CO2 per gallon of gasoline burned).

When this transportation system was started emissions and the supply of fuels were hardly on anyone’s mind and so what we have today is a system built with millions of hours of hard work and billions of dollars of capital investment. Today, in hind sight, we might have chosen a different path had we known better. However, this system has served us well for over 100 years and has contributed to the reasons we have the best place in the world to live.

But now we have rising CO2 emissions creating global warming and petroleum supplies running out and both creating issues that threaten our very way of life. So we find ourselves searching for a way out of these serious predicaments that many of us see.  One group focused on the environment sees CO2 emissions which are leading to Climate Change as the most important issue. The other side focused on Economic Growth sees the supply of cheap petroleum “Energy” as the most important issue since without that supply the world economy could collapse.

Both sides have valid points but for some reason they can’t seem to see, how by working together, they could come up with alternatives that satisfy completely both points of view. That would not seem possible, but it is and it will be shown to be so in the body of this White Paper.

The solution is right before our eyes and we just need to focus on the results we want. Doing that shows us that by switching Personal Transportation from gas/diesel fuel to electric power both issues can be solved in one project. From an all-electric vehicle production point of view this process could be started today with existing technology and, in fact, several automakers are planning on introducing limited capacity electric or electric hybrid cars by 2010.

Therefore, why write this paper if these alternative vehicles will soon be for sale.  The answer is that although building the vehicles is now possible albeit with limited driving range to start, there is no infrastructure in place to deliver the electric power to them in the quantities required to convert even a small percentage of today’s almost 250 million vehicles to electric vehicles let alone those yet to be produced.

The bottleneck here is finding a way to deliver the electric power equivalent, of the gasoline that those ICE’s now use, to the electric cars in the form of electric power.  That delivery system has three parts; first the electric power generation, next is the transmission of that power to the user and lastly is the charging of the vehicles battery. All three elements are required before the production of the electric vehicles can begin in earnest or it would be the equivalent of building ICE vehicles and having no gas stations.  Unfortunately the first two “The Grid” is already close to capacity and has its own problems, so we seem to be at an impasse.

A classic chicken or egg quandary … No electric cars, no reason to expand the Grid … No Grid capacity, no reason to build electric cars.

PDF file PROPOSAL PAPER

Power Point,  AN ALTERNATIVE TO OIL

An Essay on Moral Philosophy in Western Civilization, written in 2018


From the Introduction

The study of the behavior of humans, their ethics, and how they structure their society and their government is a field of study that goes back to the very roots of our recorded history. Originally it was called philosophy, then moral philosophy, then ethics, and now the subject is split into so many unrelated branches that the original purpose may well have been totally lost. Today I would say that there are five basic original sources for the study of human behavior. Although there are many sub classes and other beliefs, they can all be safely ignored as they don’t represent significant portions of the world’s present population.

1) Classical Greek
2) Indian
3) Asian: Chinese and Japanese
4) Islamic
5) Atheist (the only view that rejects God)

This paper will be focusing on the Classical Greek views and how the Classical Greek view transitioned into Contemporary Philosophy and the Progressive Atheist belief structure starting just before the change from the 19th century to the 20th century. This was, of course, when Marxism took hold of (pseudo) intellectual thought. Those two, Contemporary and Progressive Atheist, belief systems currently make up most of what we call Western Civilization. The first tree Chapters are very important and all else is derived from what is presented there. If you can not at minimum agree that my proposition is possible then there would be little advantage to read the rest of the book. Western Civilization is in a period that will either end it or transform it into something unknown; these these kinds transition rarely go without major conflicts. According to reliably sources I know we will be though this period by mid century. Below is an motif image I created representing the universe we live in, its explained in detail in chapter two of the book.

The link below will allow you to download the paper, if you want, and at no cost.

Essay on Moral Philosophy

The Real “An Inconvenient Truth,” Written in 2014


From the Background in the book

Back in 2004 as my work on a PEM fuel cell research project wound down there were concerns building in the news that the various regulatory programs, both in the US and else ware, were adversely affecting energy production. This was a subject of which prior experiences to include the one winding down were familiar to me from work done when I worked at General Electric, first in their R&D labs near their main production facility in Schenectady, New York and later in Erie Pennsylvanian building Diesel Electric Locomotives. With some time now available it didn’t take long with the now well established web resources for me to acquire additional technical knowledge on this subject.

After tentative research started Al Gore’s documentary “An Inconvenient Truth” was released in 2006; this documentary was produced by Davis Guggenheim and it was a story about how the burning of fossil fuels were destroying the planet. It seemed to be targeted at young adults without the education to discern truth from fiction and it was very successful in achieving negative awareness on the subject. Unfortunately, the message in that documentary was not factually correct and appeared to be only an emotional appeal to support the regulation of Carbon Emissions’ (CO2) in some form of Carbon Tax. Governments always need more money and this seemed to be a way for them to achieve that end. Unfortunately, almost all our energy comes from carbon based fuels and the proposed taxes would significantly add to the cost of producing energy. Since cheap energy is the very heart of a modern industrial society this would have disastrous economic effects.

An interesting fact, Al Gore was one of the investors that had helped set up a Carbon Trading exchange in Chicago along with a young Barack Obama (on the board of the major investor The Joyce Foundation located in Chicago) that they named the Chicago Carbon Exchange CCX in 2003. When The House of Representatives bill HR 2454 (American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009) was not passed by the US Senate in 2009 the CCX exchange folded the following year, 2010. Gore has been very vocal on this subject and if HR 2454 had been passed by the US Congress Gore would have become very wealth; so the question is was his involvement because he believed what he was promoting or because what he was promoting would have made him very wealthy?

By 2007 it was becoming clear that there were holes in the theory (Anthropogenic Climate Change) that was used to justify the reduction of carbon and that changed my view that this might be a real issue into the realization that this was going to be very bad and unnecessary if HR 2454, or any like bill, actually implemented. By 2008 this project was taking up a significant amount of my time and after the financial collapse, almost full time for a couple of years. During this time a method was found to model the world’s climate that appeared to work; and by 2012 it was virtually certain that this model was showing what was actually going on in the climate at the macro level.
This book is a summary of almost a decade of technical work which started in 2004, ten years ago. Although my background is neither physics nor chemistry those subjects and others such as climatology are part of my technical background as well as mathematics and statistics. Then forty years of experience as an engineer, researcher and inventor, much in the field of energy, does allow one to study and make observations on the movements of things especially when they have very obvious patterns. This book is based on observations and modeling and that is certainly something that someone with an economics and engineering background can do even without a PhD. But I should add here that this is not a book in the normal sense; it’s more a series of discussions taken from various papers and studies that I’ve written over the last decade.

This is a graphic of the energy flows in the Earths atmosphere the represents the energy flows that keep the Earths Temperature Stable that I created after I understood what was happening. Will Happer was instrumental in my education on the “real” physics involved! 

I have tried to put the works in an order that makes sense but since this is a composite there is some duplication in a few places.
Predicting what will happen tomorrow or years from now has never been easy, and never will be since there are always the messy and unforeseen things that get in the way. But having said that when a forecast is desired and a model or simulation is constructed and there is sufficient relevant information available, it may be possible to construct a model that works — as long as conditions do not change. Finding information that correlates into causal relations is the key to the success of any model; but it’s also very easy to fall into the trap of correlation but no cause and effect as data streams often move together but for many and varied reasons, some of which are not causal.

For example we have a road coming from the south going north turning to the west and entering a gap in some mountains that are in the way. There is also a railroad line coming from the east and going west passing though the same gap for the same reason and they run parallel to each other as that is the best way through the mountains. For the time they are both in the gap they run together and in the same direction so that a train and a car could be traveling next to each other and maybe even at the same speed through the entire gap. An observer in the mountains could say after observing both moving together and in the same direction that both were going to the same place. That observer could not know that only a few miles up the gap the road and the track would go their separate way.

We have the same situation with anthropogenic climate change where from the 1970’s until just a few years ago when both CO2, as measured by NOAA, and global temperatures, as measured by NASA seemed to be going up at a similar rate. The issue wasn’t that they were or weren’t moving together but whether it was coincidence or correlation with cause and effect. Models that are designed and built around incomplete data no matter how well indented to not work once the conditions change. During this period it is a fact that both moved together, just like the car and train, but before then and ever since, they were going their own separate ways.

Since all have to agree that a model is only as good as the forecasts it makes and therefore the current global temperature reductions which are not shown in any of the IPCC climate models means that there is something wrong or something missing. In this book we will show a different way of looking at climate that gives significantly better predictive results. This alternative model is significantly more accurate than that of the IPCC models and is therefore by definition a better model. The reason this is so is that there are many problems with the assumptions used to build the IPCC climate models which are at the heart of the anthropogenic climate change debate, and the debate is far from settled.

The balance of this book is showing how the IPCC climate assumptions are incomplete and how when those assumptions are modified that a model can be designed that actually works. This is original research based on information easily found on the web. It is the opinion of the author that this model is valid and has correctly identified the key variables.

Since this book was written I have made some revisions but the basic principles are the same.

 

The link below will allow you to download the book, if you want, and at no cost.

The Real “An Inconvenient Truth”

Book on what happened on September 9, 2001, Written in 2001


Time line from September 9, 2001 (9/11)

8:45 a.m. (all times are EDT): A hijacked passenger jet, American Airlines Flight 11 out of Boston, Massachusetts, crashes into the north tower of the World Trade Center, tearing a gaping hole in the building and setting it afire.

9:03 a.m.: A second hijacked airliner, United Airlines Flight 175 from Boston, crashes into the south tower of the World Trade Center and explodes. Both buildings are burning.

9:17 a.m.: The Federal Aviation Administration shuts down all New York City area airports.

9:21 a.m.: The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey orders all bridges and tunnels in the New York area closed.

9:30 a.m.: President Bush, speaking in Sarasota, Florida, says the country has suffered an “apparent terrorist attack.”

9:40 a.m.: The FAA halts all flight operations at U.S. airports, the first time in U.S. history that air traffic nationwide has been halted.

9:43 a.m.: American Airlines Flight 77 crashes into the Pentagon, sending up a huge plume of smoke. Evacuation begins immediately.

9:45 a.m.: The White House evacuates.

9:57 a.m.: Bush departs from Florida.

10:05 a.m.: The south tower of the World Trade Center collapses, plummeting into the streets below. A massive cloud of dust and debris forms and slowly drifts away from the building.

10:08 a.m.: Secret Service agents armed with automatic rifles are deployed into Lafayette Park across from the White House.

10:10 a.m.: A portion of the Pentagon collapses.

10:10 a.m.: United Airlines Flight 93, also hijacked, crashes in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, southeast of Pittsburgh.

10:13 a.m.: The United Nations building evacuates, including 4,700 people from the headquarters building and 7,000 total from UNICEF and U.N. development programs.

10:22 a.m.: In Washington, the State and Justice departments are evacuated, along with the World Bank.

10:24 a.m.: The FAA reports that all inbound transatlantic aircraft flying into the United States are being diverted to Canada.

10:28 a.m.: The World Trade Center’s north tower collapses from the top down as if it were being peeled apart, releasing a tremendous cloud of debris and smoke.

10:45 a.m.: All federal office buildings in Washington are evacuated.

10.46 a.m.: U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell cuts short his trip to Latin America to return to the United States.

10.48 a.m.: Police confirm the plane crash in Pennsylvania.

10:53 a.m.: New York’s primary elections, scheduled for Tuesday, are postponed.

10:54 a.m.: Israel evacuates all diplomatic missions.

10:57 a.m.: New York Gov. George Pataki says all state government offices are closed.

11:16 a.m.: CNN reports that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is preparing emergency-response teams in a precautionary move.11:02 a.m.: New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani urges New Yorkers to stay at home and orders an evacuation of the area south of Canal Street.

11:18 a.m.: American Airlines reports it has lost two aircraft. American Flight 11, a Boeing 767 flying from Boston to Los Angeles, had 81 passengers and 11 crew aboard. Flight 77, a Boeing 757 en route from Washington’s Dulles International Airport to Los Angeles, had 58 passengers and six crew members aboard. Flight 11 slammed into the north tower of the World Trade Center. Flight 77 hit the Pentagon.

11:26 a.m.: United Airlines reports that United Flight 93, en route from Newark, New Jersey, to San Francisco, California, has crashed in Pennsylvania. The airline also says that it is “deeply concerned” about United Flight 175.

11:59 a.m.: United Airlines confirms that Flight 175, from Boston to Los Angeles, has crashed with 56 passengers and nine crew members aboard. It hit the World Trade Center’s south tower.

12:04 p.m.: Los Angeles International Airport, the destination of three of the crashed airplanes, is evacuated.

12:15 p.m: San Francisco International Airport is evacuated and shut down. The airport was the destination of United Airlines Flight 93, which crashed in Pennsylvania.

12:15 p.m.: The Immigration and Naturalization Service says U.S. borders with Canada and Mexico are on the highest state of alert, but no decision has been made about closing borders.

12:30 p.m.: The FAA says 50 flights are in U.S. airspace, but none are reporting any problems.

1:04 p.m.: Bush, speaking from Barksdale Air Force Base in Louisiana, says that all appropriate security measures are being taken, including putting the U.S. military on high alert worldwide. He asks for prayers for those killed or wounded in the attacks and says, “Make no mistake, the United States will hunt down and punish those responsible for these cowardly acts.”

1:27 p.m.: A state of emergency is declared by the city of Washington.

1:44 p.m.: The Pentagon says five warships and two aircraft carriers will leave the U.S. Naval Station in Norfolk, Virginia, to protect the East Coast from further attack and to reduce the number of ships in port. The two carriers, the USS George Washington and the USS John F. Kennedy, are headed for the New York coast. The other ships headed to sea are frigates and guided missile destroyers capable of shooting down aircraft.

1:48 p.m.: Bush leaves Barksdale Air Force Base aboard Air Force One and flies to an Air Force base in Nebraska.

2 p.m.: Senior FBI sources tell CNN they are working on the assumption that the four airplanes that crashed were hijacked as part of a terrorist attack.

2:30 p.m.: The FAA announces there will be no U.S. commercial air traffic until noon EDT Wednesday at the earliest.

2:49 p.m.: At a news conference, Giuliani says that subway and bus service are partially restored in New York City. Asked about the number of people killed, Giuliani says, “I don’t think we want to speculate about that — more than any of us can bear.”

3:55 p.m.: Karen Hughes, a White House counselor, says the president is at an undisclosed location, later revealed to be Offutt Air Force Base in Nebraska, and is conducting a National Security Council meeting by phone. Vice President Dick Cheney and National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice are in a secure facility at the White House. Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld is at the Pentagon.

3:55 p.m.: Giuliani now says the number of critically injured in New York City is up to 200 with 2,100 total injuries reported.

4 p.m: CNN National Security Correspondent David Ensor reports that U.S. officials say there are “good indications” that Saudi militant Osama bin Laden, suspected of coordinating the bombings of two U.S. embassies in 1998, is involved in the attacks, based on “new and specific” information developed since the attacks.

4:06 p.m.: California Gov. Gray Davis dispatches urban search-and-rescue teams to New York.

4:10 p.m.: Building 7 of the World Trade Center complex is reported on fire.

4:20 p.m.: U.S. Sen. Bob Graham, D-Florida, chairman of the Senate Intelligence Committee, says he was “not surprised there was an attack (but) was surprised at the specificity.” He says he was “shocked at what actually happened — the extent of it.”

4:25 p.m.: The American Stock Exchange, the Nasdaq and the New York Stock Exchange say they will remain closed Wednesday.

4:30 p.m.: The president leaves Offutt Air Force Base in Nebraska aboard Air Force One to return to Washington.

5:15 p.m.: CNN Military Affairs Correspondent Jamie McIntyre reports fires are still burning in part of the Pentagon. No death figures have been released yet.

5:20 p.m.: The 47-story Building 7 of the World Trade Center complex collapses. The evacuated building is damaged when the twin towers across the street collapse earlier in the day. Other nearby buildings in the area remain ablaze.

5:30 p.m.: CNN Senior White House Correspondent John King reports that U.S. officials say the plane that crashed in Pennsylvania could have been headed for one of three possible targets: Camp David, the White House or the U.S. Capitol building.

6 p.m.: Explosions are heard in Kabul, Afghanistan, hours after terrorist attacks targeted financial and military centers in the United States. The attacks occurred at 2:30 a.m. local time. Afghanistan is believed to be where bin Laden, who U.S. officials say is possibly behind Tuesday’s deadly attacks, is located. U.S. officials say later that the United States had no involvement in the incident whatsoever. The attack is credited to the Northern Alliance, a group fighting the Taliban in the country’s ongoing civil war.

6:10 p.m.:Giuliani urges New Yorkers to stay home Wednesday if they can.

6:40 p.m.: Rumsfeld, the U.S. defense secretary, holds a news conference in the Pentagon, noting the building is operational. “It will be in business tomorrow,” he says.

6:54 p.m.: Bush arrives back at the White House aboard Marine One and is scheduled to address the nation at 8:30 p.m. The president earlier landed at Andrews Air Force Base in Maryland with a three-fighter jet escort. CNN’s King reports Laura Bush arrived earlier by motorcade from a “secure location.”

7:17 p.m.: U.S. Attorney General John Ashcroft says the FBI is setting up a Web site for tips on the attacks: http://www.ifccfbi.gov. He also says family and friends of possible victims can leave contact information at 800-331-0075.

7:02 p.m.: CNN’s Paula Zahn reports the Marriott Hotel near the World Trade Center is on the verge of collapse and says some New York bridges are now open to outbound traffic.

7:45 p.m.: The New York Police Department says that at least 78 officers are missing. The city also says that as many as half of the first 400 firefighters on the scene were killed.

8:30 p.m.: President Bush addresses the nation, saying “thousands of lives were suddenly ended by evil” and asks for prayers for the families and friends of Tuesday’s victims. “These acts shattered steel, but they cannot dent the steel of American resolve,” he says. The president says the U.S. government will make no distinction between the terrorists who committed the acts and those who harbor them. He adds that government offices in Washington are reopening for essential personnel Tuesday night and for all workers Wednesday.

9:22 p.m.: CNN’s McIntyre reports the fire at the Pentagon is still burning and is considered contained but not under control.

9:57 p.m.: Giuliani says New York City schools will be closed Wednesday and no more volunteers are needed for Tuesday evening’s rescue efforts. He says there is hope that there are still people alive in rubble. He also says that power is out on the westside of Manhattan and that health department tests show there are no airborne chemical agents about which to worry.

10:49 p.m.: CNN Congressional Correspondent Jonathan Karl reports that Attorney General Ashcroft told members of Congress that there were three to five hijackers on each plane armed only with knives.

10:56 p.m: CNN’s Zahn reports that New York City police believe there are people alive in buildings near the World Trade Center.

11:54 p.m.: CNN Washington Bureau Chief Frank Sesno reports that a government official told him there was an open microphone on one of the hijacked planes and that sounds of discussion and “duress” were heard. Sesno also reports a source says law enforcement has “credible” information and leads and is confident about the investigation.

The link below will allow you to download the book, if you want, and at no cost.

WTC 911

 

Power Point Presentation on The History of Vietnam and the war there, Written in 2016


I was asked to give a presentation on the Vietnam War to 6th 7th graders school in a Cleveland Suburb in 2016, and I accepted the takes. I didn’t want to make it gory but the teacher said it would be OK to discuss what happened there. While creating a power point I kept her in the loop as a developed the presentation and it was approved by her.  With out looking it up I believe it was in April of 2016 and it was part of an over all program honoring veterans. The presentation was about an hour long and included the history of Vietnam, the war in Vietnam and the aftermath of leaving.

I brought to the school souvenirs, maps, and I dressed in a replicate uniform that I wore on patrol when I was there. The presentation went well and the kids asked decent questions. The presentation is appropriate for all ages and is reasonably accurate, which means that current descriptions of that conflict are not accurate.  The following picture was taken by a friend of mine, I’m the American on the right, team XO, the other American, on the left, with the captured AK-47 in the team commander.

On patrol in Vietnam in October 1967

The link below will allow you to download the book, if you want, and at no cost.

Vietnam War

 

Book on my Service in Vietnam, Written in 1996


From the Introduction in the book …

The following account is written from notes I made while in the hospital in San Antonio recovering from wounds I received while in Vietnam and from communications I had with 5th Special Forces Group when I was stationed at Fort Campbell in 1968 and 1969. More recently I read several books on Vietnam (in 1992), listed in the Bibliography, which aided me in the geography of the area and which put the fighting I was involved with in Phuc Long Province in context of what was happening in the country as a whole.

In 1993 I joined the Special Forces Association, Cleveland Chapter XLV, and I am currently the Secretary of the Cleveland chapter. Some of the former SF troopers in that organization read drafts of this account and helped me to clarify this work (especially the parts relating to operations in Vietnam) prior to the final copy. Their help was greatly appreciated.

In 1994 the Cleveland Chapter of the Special Forces Association (Jim Cole, President) was the host Chapter for the national convention, which was held at the Rockside Holiday Inn. During that convention I met Steve Sherman, also an ex Special Forces trooper, who is compiling a history of Special Forces people and activities. I acquired from him a set of the “Green Beret” a magazine published by the 5th Special Forces in Vietnam from 1966 to 1970. In addition, I re-viewed other material he had that allowed me to expand on the work I had been doing to write this book.

Lastly I have used the National Archives section of the Smithsonian Institute in College Park, Maryland. The military records of that period are now declassified and available for re-search. I have found many reports and references to the military action I was involved with by using this valuable resource. This has probably been the since most important resource to me and I do want to thank the researchers there who were able to dig out the records I needed with the limited information I was able to give them.

Every attempt has been made to accurately state what happened to the team, the camp and me. My original notes were done while recovering from severe wounds in the hospital and at the time there were things I could not remember (there were several weeks were I was in a delirious state and it took many months to get back to close to normal), especially some names of people. Materials I read in 1992 and 1994 brought back some of this loss. Sherman’s work with Special Forces personnel missing in action (MIA) or killed in action (KIA) when compared to the dates and times of some of the battles I knew of gave me a way to place some other names back in. I will state that although everything that I tell about in this book is accurate to the best of my knowledge it is possible that some of the patrol activity is not in the proper time sequence, I don’t think so but it is possible.

This is me in the Jungle in Vietnam in October, 1967

The link below will allow you to download the book, if you want, and at no cost.

Bu Dop 1967

Book on Economics, Written in 1994


From The introduction to my book …

I first had the idea of writing a book such as this about ten years ago. It seemed to me that each of us learns something of value as we go through life, but most of us do not succeed in passing along our knowledge to others before we die. This, then, is my attempt to pass on to others what I, over my fifty-odd years, have come to believe are the truths of life and what I believe may be a path into a better future. Much of what I write about involves economic issues, since I am an economist by training. Economics, however, is a social science, and my excursions into other areas of the social sciences are therefore not totally out of line.

I have had a great deal of “life” experience (both educational and professional) and this book thus covers many subject areas. While analyzing these subjects, I have tried to be logical and objective (as I have tried to be all my life), and hopefully this proclivity is reflected herein. You, the reader, will probably disagree with some or much of what I have written. That’s fine if your disagreement is based on fact; it’s unacceptable, however, if your disagreement is the result of prejudice and preconceived ideas.
Throughout this book, I have included editorial writings, which I felt were astute, and which help to illuminate my ideas. In each case, I have credited the author and distinguished his/her writing from my own.

Much of what I write about could be construed as anti-religious; it is not. It has not been my intention to support or deny the existence of God or a Supreme Being.
A thought that should be kept in mind when reading this book is that virtually nothing we do today is done as it was in the past. By this I mean the “near past”–remember that radio was invented only ninety-nine years ago, and it has been only ninety-one years since the first powered flight. Most of the technology that we now take for granted has been developed in the past fifty years. The corollary to this is that our ideas and attitudes must also be different from those of the past. Try to imagine how people will regard the “absurdly primitive” last decade of the twentieth century in the year 2045 (when all that we know today will have been gone for fifty years). The point is to keep an open mind, don’t pre-judge, and don’t be too certain about anything.

We live in a world of fantastic ideas if only we can keep an open mind!

The link below will allow you to download the book, if you want, and at no cost.

Power Economics