Yet More Problems at Problematic Baltimore Drug & Vaccine Production Plant—Plenty of Taxpayer Dollars Burn Away

TrialSite Staff Posted on Aug. 14, 2022, 10:30 a.m.

A drug and vaccine drug production facility in Baltimore plagued with problems was shut down by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in early 2021. Apparently suspended due to contaminants, the FDA allowed the production facility to go back online just months later in August of 2021. Now about 135 million doses of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine will need to be destroyed due to yet more quality mishaps at the same facility. Other production problems at an Emergent BioSolutions production facility reported by this media led to the destruction of 400 million vaccine doses last year. According to a statement by Johnson & Johnson has ended its relationship with Emergent BioSolutions. The New York Times covered this latest quality debacle late last month.

Emergent BioSolutions benefited from multiple federal contracts during the pandemic yet couldn’t keep the quality together to avoid the wastage of hundreds of millions of vaccine doses.

Emergent BioSolutions was a costly partner for AstraZeneca as well as Johnson & Johnson. A manufacturing partner in America they were apparently the cause of vaccine safety issues at the now notorious Baltimore plant run by Emergent BioSolutions. The most recent quality debacle was more widely reported in places such as India.

While Emergent BioSolutions has been plagued with production errors, they still benefit from ongoing federal government grants—meaning ultimately taxpayer-funded research.

Why aren’t the feds more concerned? TrialSite reported just a few months ago that the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) granted Emergent BioSolutions funds for yet another vaccine development effort. This time the funds went to Emergent BioSolutions to conduct a Phase 1 study evaluating an early-stage vaccine for Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus (EEV), Western Equine Encephalitis virus (WEEV) and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus (VEEV).

Perhaps the quality issues plaguing the Emergent BioSolutions Baltimore production facility won’t be an issue for the development of investigational products for this novel vaccine?

Monkeypox is Not the Next Pandemic

Armstrong Economics Blog/Disease Re-Posted Aug 12, 2022 by Martin Armstrong

The Biden Administration declared a public health emergency over monkeypox. This is not an airborne virus, and it is fairly difficult to catch as skin-to-skin contact is the primary method of transmission. The woke media does not want this fact released, but the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has found that 99% of all cases were found in men, and 94% have had male sexual encounters.

Additionally, nearly 20% of gay men who fell ill admitted to having 10 or more partners in the three weeks before symptoms began. About 40% of those who fell ill reported having two to four partners, while 14% reported having five to nine partners. Around 38% admitted to participating in group sex.

This is more of a sexually transmitted disease and should be presented to the public as such. CDC guidance:

“Public health efforts should prioritize gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men, who are currently disproportionately affected, for prevention and testing, address equity, and minimize stigma, while maintaining vigilance for transmission in other populations.”

There is no need to stigmatize people for their sexual preferences or repeat problematic misinformation that spread during the 80s during the AIDS epidemic. However, there is no need to scare the general public into thinking that monkeypox is easily transmissible. If they care about health (they don’t), then they should be honest about the virus and educate the demographic mainly at risk.

During Trump Raid Feds Refused to Provide Warrant, Demanded Security Cameras Be Turned Off, Trump Security Team Refused – The Documents are Likely Related to Ratcliffe Declassification

Posted originally on the conservative tree house on August 10, 2022 | sundance

More details surfacing about the illicit, sketchy and highly political FBI raid on President Trump’s home are coming out.  The federal agents sent by the DC political system refused to provide the search warrant and demanded all of the security cameras covering the compound be turned off as they conducted their raid.

Thankfully, and due to the suspicious nature of the FBI operatives involved, the Trump security team did not turn off the cameras.  The Dept of Justice and FBI have yet to give a public statement supporting the predicate of their raid, as a result the transparent political motives have awakened an entire world to the reality of a corrupt USA deep state.

Based on prior statements outlined by Trump’s legal team, I suspect a different DOJ/FBI motive than is currently being discussed.  First, the information from Eric Trump.

(Via Daily Mail) – Eric Trump revealed FBI agents refused to hand over the search warrant for their raid on Mar-a-Lago and kicked an attorney off the property in a new, incisive account of the Monday operation at the Florida estate.

Speaking exclusively to, the former president’s son said the 30 agents who arrived at the property asked staff to turn security cameras off – but they refused.

He also said that the attorney was forced to stand at the end of the Mar-a-Lago driveway while the team searched inside – and allegedly used safe crackers to break into his father’s safe.

He called the raid another ‘coordinated attack’ on his father Donald Trump and insisted there is no way President Joe Biden was kept in the dark about the search.

The latest explosive account comes with the Department of Justice facing mounting pressure to explain what grounds they had for the search.

Eric said that his father’s lawyer Christina Bobb was forced to stand at the end of the Mar-a-Lago driveway throughout the raid.

‘There’s 30 agents there,’ he recalled of the Monday search in a phone call with ‘They told our lawyer… you have to leave the property right now. Turn off all security cameras.’

‘They would not give her the search warrant,’ he claimed. ‘So they showed it to her from about 10 feet away. They would not give her a copy of the search warrant.’

He said that Bobb was confused why a lawyer for the person’s home being raided by the FBI was not able to see or obtain a copy of the search warrant.

Eric said he would be ‘thrilled’ to find out if there was a valid search warrant.

The FBI declined to comment to on the raid and Eric’s claim no search warrant was handed over to Trump’s legal team.

‘It’s all a coordinated attack with the FBI,’ the former president’s son added, insisting the raid was approved by President Biden.

‘Do you think that the FBI director is going to raid the former president’s house, especially a house as you know, kind of world renowned as Mar Lago is in a place as public as Mar Lago is without getting the approval of President [Biden]?’ Eric questioned.

By not turning off the security cameras, Eric said they saw the FBI raiding areas of the property that they ‘shouldn’t have been.’

Donald Trump lamented Wednesday that the FBI blocked his lawyers from the property during the raid at his Palm Beach, Florida residence and suggested that agents may have ‘planted’ evidence. (read more)

In earlier interviews with President Trump’s lawyers, it was noted that officials from the national archives (Washington DC) and team trump had already spent hours looking through the documents at the heart of the matter at the Mar-a-Lago estate. So, Washington DC officials already knew exactly what was in those boxes.

Stay with me….

Knowing the details of the DOJ and FBI targeting operations against Donald Trump as a candidate and president (2015-2020), I suspect Trump took some of the declassified (by him) evidence of that targeting with him.

We remind ourselves that since leaving office, former Office of the Director of National Intelligence, John Ratcliffe, has stated on multiple occasions that there were documents he and Trump declassified for the Durham team and to be made public.

As Ratcliffe has noted, those declassified documents were never released.  The DOJ/FBI have instead been hiding behind the Durham investigation as the justification for not releasing them, ie, ‘an ongoing investigation’, etc.

I am willing to bet the current documents at the heart of the controversy are copies of those same previously declassified documents that are against the interests of the current ODNI, DOJ and FBI to release.

The national archives are a false front, a general institutional tool for use in creating the optic/narrative of a valid reason for challenging President Trump over documents.  The real motive of the DNI, DOJ and FBI are to get the evidence of the prior corrupt activity back in their total control.  I am confident this is the real scenario that people are not discussing.

The DOJ and FBI are not only hiding the documents that former DNI Ratcliffe declassified and left for release, but they are also on a seek and capture mission for copies of those documents because they will never release them.   This is also the Deep State motive to drag out the Durham investigation.

If the Durham investigation ended, and if the ODNI did not release the documents, then Trump would have justification for releasing those documents.  The need for control is always a reaction to fear.  What the DOJ and FBI fear is the content of those declassified documents.

This background would also explain why Donald Trump and his team are going to court to force the DOJ and FBI to release the details of the contents they confiscated.  Forcing the DOJ/FBI to reveal the content of the documents they took is another way to force the Trump-targeting documents into the sunlight of the American public.


American Household Debt Surpasses $16 Trillion

Armstrong Economics Blog/USA Current Events Re-Posted Aug 8, 2022 by Martin Armstrong

American household has reached a new high, according to a report by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Total household debt has surpassed $16 trillion for the first time in American history. Americans have taken on $2 trillion in additional debt since the pandemic. Aggregate household debt balances rose by $312 billion in Q2 2022 alone, marking a 2% increase from Q1.

Mortgages were the largest contributing factor to the post-pandemic uptick after rising by $207 billion to $11.39 trillion. Americans have been relying more on credit to make purchases amid inflation, and credit card balances have spiked by $46 billion last quarter. Non-housing balances saw the largest uptick since 2016 after increasing by $103 billion. Auto loans saw a $33 billion rise as the cost of autos remained at a high.

Delinquency on debt “increased modestly” in all categories. Around 95,000 people faced bankruptcy in Q2 2022, which is still near historic lows. Of the $758 billion in new mortgage debt accumulated in the last quarter, 65% is held by people with credit scores over 760. Outstanding student loan debt reached $1.59 trillion last quarter, 5% of which was delinquent.

People may be able to pay off their debt now, but as inflation and interest rates rise, that will become increasingly difficult. While mortgage debt is no cause for concern, the over-reliance on credit purchases will not help Americans lower debt. Inflation must come down for the people to maintain their quality of life.

Fauci’s Fears Falls on Deaf Ears

Armstrong Economics Blog/Disease Re-Posted Aug 8, 2022 by Martin Armstrong

Dr. Anthony Fauci is relentless. Biden told us the fable of the winter of death and destruction last year. Now Fauci is warning that people are “going to get into trouble” if they’re not vaccinated and boosted by the fall and winter months.

After hearing of the countless side effects and realizing the vaccination does not prevent infection or transmission, most Americans do not want a booster. The Kaiser Family Foundation found that 70% of Americans, 228 million people, are currently not up to date on their vaccinations. Only 48.4% of Americans (children over five included) opted for a booster shot.

Fauci claims people should do it for their “community.” Why? I could have Moderna, Pfizer, J&J, and the rest injected into me, and it still would not prevent me from being prone to transmitting the virus. Fauci himself caught COVID, and even Biden continued to work and failed to isolate after testing positive for the virus. Fauci’s fears are falling on deaf ears as people are becoming aware of the truth – the vaccines do not work.

Sunday Talks, After Losing His Primary, Pete Meijer Goes Full Kinzinger

Posted originally on the conservative tree house on August 7, 2022 | sundance

After exhibiting a congressional perspective in line with democrats, and then voting to authorize the J6 committee along with President Trump’s impeachment, Michigan representative Pete Meijer lost his primary reelection bid to John Gibbs.

The CBS crew quickly contacted Meijer to provide him the opportunity to belittle the base of the republican party that rejected him from office.  Silver spooner Pete Meijer was more than happy to accommodate the request and appears with Margaret Brennan. [Transcript Link] – WATCH:

[Transcript] – MARGARET BRENNAN: Michigan Congressman Peter Meijer is one of 10 House Republicans who voted to impeach former President Trump following the attack on the Capitol. Last Tuesday, he lost his primary race against a Trump-endorsed challenger. Congressman Meijer is with us this morning from Grand Rapids, Michigan. Good morning to Congressman. The person who won that primary is an election denier named John Gibbs, and he is backed by former President Trump. Why do you think Michigan Republicans favored him?

REP. PETER MEIJER: Well good morning, Margaret. And as you said, I lost my primary and that is on me. I take responsibility for that. But it’s important to note that it wasn’t just former President Trump, who was in this race, there was about a half million dollars that the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee in their first expenditures of the 2022 midterms dumped in to help boost him.

So, we had a scenario where not only did I have the former president aligned against me, but in a rare showing of bipartisan unity, Nancy Pelosi and the House Democratic Campaign Committee, also united to try to knock me off the ballot. Now, this just highlights the cynicism and hypocrisy of our politics today. And frankly, it’ll be unknowable what that ultimate impact was, but the fact that we have the establishment left and the extreme right locking arms in common cause paints a very telling picture of where our politics are in 2022.

MARGARET BRENNAN” Right, what you’re talking about there is an ad that the Democratic Congressional committee campaigns spent $325,000 on to boost Mr. Gibbs, which was almost as much as Gibbs spent on his entire campaign. That’s what you’re referring to, that’s what our viewers are looking at right there. But do you think that ad really made a difference? I mean Democrats aren’t voting in this primary, it’s Republicans, why did Michigan Republicans fall for this ad?

REP. MEIJER: Well, you know, I think there is a clear question of agency here, of course, and at the end of the day, Republican voters are going to cast their votes as they see fit. I should note that this ad was not aimed at- was not playing on MSNBC, it was not playing in places where Democratic voters might see it, it was targeted in places to try to sway and convince Republican primary voters to try to give my primary challenger a boost up and over.

And I should add that my defeat was by roughly 3%, out of over 100,000 votes cast, we lost by less than 4,000 votes, and I think that’s important to remember, when you have very close elections like this. And obviously competing against very strong headwinds, having a Trump-endorsed challenger in a party where President Trump still holds over 75% approval. That a message of focusing on the substance of what I’ve been able to accomplish in office. I’m proud that our office is on track to set a record for the most number of bills signed into law by a freshman, that those type of accomplishments get lost in our current personality politics, get lost in a broader sense. And I think that is one of the fundamental challenges that we have as a country, and that is, frankly, frustrating Michigan families. We are dealing with a politics that does not reward substance that does not reward, you know, reality.

MARGARET BRENNAN: But does that mean–

REP. MEIJER: That focuses on rhetoric and personality above all else.

MARGARET BRENNAN: Do you think Democrats are going to get what they paid for here? Right? I mean, they’re betting that would be easier to defeat. Mr. Gibbs than you. Is your district going to go to a Democrat?

REP. MEIJER: It’s important to note, this is a district that President Biden won in 2020 by roughly nine points, I was one of five Republicans running for reelection in seats where the- where President Biden won in the 2020 elections by eight or more points. And so while I think there was certainly a cynical calculus at play with the Democrats meddling, this is a risky strategy. It’s a dangerous strategy.

Where President Biden is in his approval is so in the gutter, that it is hard to see that strategy- it is easy to see that strategy backfiring in a spectacular way, which is all the more reason why we should not be embracing the zero-sum idea of politics. We should not be embracing this- this notion that if we can keep a problem alive, keep it festering, but be able to gain a marginal advantage in the process, that that somehow equates to a victory. I think it’s a dark and cynical way of viewing our politics, that frankly, 48% of the electorate in the primary here rejected. They stood against that cynicism that they were focused on somebody who was working to deliver results.

MARGARET BRENNAN: Your Republican colleague Liz Cheney is about to face a primary August the 16th in her state, former Vice President Dick Cheney, her father, released this video.

Former VP Dick Cheney (SOT): “In our nation’s 246-year history, there has never been an individual who is a greater threat to our republic than Donald Trump. He tried to steal the last election using lies and violence to keep himself in power after the voters had rejected him. He is a coward. A real man wouldn’t lie to his supporters. He lost his election and he lost big. I know it. He knows it. And deep down I think most Republicans know it.”

MARGARET BRENNAN: Is Mr. Cheney right there because 57% of Republicans told CBS News, they’re more likely to vote for a candidate who gets an endorsement from the former president. Is the former president, the leader of the Republican Party or the biggest threat to our nation’s Republic?

REP. MEIJER: Well, I certainly think that President Trump wants to keep those numbers up. He wants that degree of influence, and I mentioned earlier the common cause between the extremes on the right, and the establishment left. Nancy Pelosi, I think she’s waking up every day crossing her fingers that Donald Trump runs in 2024, that he announces well ahead of the midterms, because right now, the midterms are set to be a referendum on President Biden’s leadership and Speaker Pelosi and many of my house Democratic colleagues do not want that. They want it to be a referendum on former President Trump and I think former President Trump wants that as well.

MARGARET BRENNAN: Well, we will be watching that primary. And Congressman, thank you for joining us today. We’ll be right back. (read more)

Worse Than Monkeypox, Nikki Haley Says She Will Run in 2024 for President “If There is a Place” For Her, What to Watch For

Posted originally on the conservative tree house on August 7, 2022 | sundance

Reminder, Nikki Haley in February 2021: …”“I don’t think [Trump’s] going to be in the picture,” she said, matter-of-factly. “I don’t think he can. He’s fallen so far.” […] “We need to acknowledge he let us down,” she said. “He went down a path he shouldn’t have, and we shouldn’t have followed him, and we shouldn’t have listened to him. And we can’t let that ever happen again.”  (link)

Two months later, April 2021, when asked about her 2024 presidential ambitions Nikki Haley says:…”Out of respect I would never do anything to go against [Trump], he knows that. I would have a conversation with him and talk to him about it should we decide we want to pursue it; but, um, no, I have a great respect for him, and I would never consider running against him.” (link)

Today when asked about her presidential ambitions Nikki Haley says, “if there’s a place for me.” WATCH (Prompted):

CTH has been warning about Nikki Haley ever since she asked Sarah Palin to help her win the South Carolina Governor’s race, and then stabbed Palin in the back with the most derisive negative commentary thereafter.  Nikki Haley would never have been governor without Sarah Palin; those who know politics know this is absolutely true…. And Haley is a snake.

Use the CTH site search tool function and type in “Nikki Haley” for the results.  Take a few Snickers bars because you are going to be there a while.

Why so much focus on Nikki Haley?

For the same reason CTH focused so heavily on Mitch McConnell; these are backstabbing liars of the highest order.  These are the snakes from the poem President Trump recited quite often….

…These Haley types are the scheming DeceptiCons.  Haley has no redeeming qualities if you are well versed in understanding the manipulative intents of the conniving big government, cocktail party, Wall Street republicans.

Nikki Haley is the Mitt Romney of John McCains.

October 2019 – Nikki Haley purchased a $2.4 million home in Kiawah Island, Charleston county, South Carolina (link). Nikki Haley released her book “With All Due Respect” on November 12th (link). Mrs. Haley also took a position on the board of directors for Boeing Co, likely an extension of success for her prior efforts recruiting Boeing to the state. (link)

The board position, home purchase and book tour follows a very predictable pattern for those who follow GOPe politics closely. Indeed, there is speculation Nikki Haley was/is positioning for a 2024 presidential bid; speculation that generally aligns with the pattern.

OCTOBER 2018 – Ms. Haley comes from the political house of Prescott/Bush; hence the original Rubio support in 2016 etc. She is a political animal from the establishment wing.

Within the traditional political class the customary approach to a White House run is to gain about five years of wealth in advance of a presidential run. Haley would be following a wealth process for a 2024 presidential run.

During this wealth accumulation period the cocktail party circuit (the billionaire crowd) will front-load wealth, purchase homes and all expenses etc, for the future candidate. This ‘Five Year Plan‘ was the same historic approach done for Ronald Reagan.

With a candidate in the private sector, the professional donor-class make investments in the candidate while it is legal to do so. The investments are made in anticipation of future influence.  This is simply how money influences politics.

With the “Me Too” movement in high political value, the currency of Nikki Haley, as an investment candidate, is at the apex.  Haley checks the right boxes; she is making a predictable move to capitalize on that process, politics and timeliness.

The U.N., as an institution, is also in alignment with the high-brow Prescott Bush clan. Ms. Nikki Haley is regarded by this clan as a very valuable commodity. If they can’t get Jeb, or another Bush (ie. Rubio) over the finish line, they will be much better positioned with investments in Nikki Haley.

Due to the increasing success of the MAGA or Trump Republican apparatus, Haley will need to carefully position herself as a stealth Decepticon and not upset the vulgarian hordes; ie. the new republican party base voter. As a smart and tactical politician Haley will invest heavily in the optics of supporting the MAGA movement.

Much like the primary of 2016 (w/ Jeb), the primary race of 2024 will determine if Haley can con enough people into not seeing her elitist Decepticon position.

The Bush clan and professional political cocktail circuit was rebuked in 2016, so we can anticipate their strategy in 2024 will be with those strategic lessons at the forefront.

DeSantis = Closest to MAGA domestically, ergo most valuable to Wall Street for globalist economics.

Noem = MAGA-lite, with a twist of Koch.  Club influencer.  She’s in the race, guaranteed.

[ Watch out for the club to push a DeSantis/Noem ticket.]

Haley = Purebreed Decepticon.  UniParty Establishment favorite. Endorsements from Bush and Cheney likely.

Cruz = Controlled opposition. Useful to draft Haley or Noem into the club lane in exchange for DOJ AG position.

WHAT TO WATCH FIRST – Pay attention to the club meeting this winter and the decision on how to line up and modify the 2024 primary election dates by state.  AFTER the dates and sequence are established, then overlay the delegate changes to voter results from “winner take all” or allocated “proportionally.”  These are club decisions with major ramifications.  The RNC club is a private organization.  They select the rules for the election.

New York Governor Kathy Hochul Enters Inauthenticity Contest Determined to Dethrone Elizabeth Warren

Posted originally on the conservative tree house on August 7, 2022 | sundance

The glove has been thrown down, as New York Governor Kathy Hochul enters the national contest for political inauthenticity.

Prior to today, California Governor Gavin Newsom was the closest competitor within striking distance of Elizabeth Warren’s “I’m a git me a beer” moment.  However, the assembly of advisors that guide team Hochul have now entered the contest with Hochul’s visual tweet earlier today:

Unfortunately, there are several progressive demerits which may keep Hochul from achieving maximum pander points.  The biggest issue is beef, no longer an acceptable food product amid the left-wing judges.  A tray of sustainable algae cakes would have been better. However, to be fair, there are rumors team Hochul was using ‘cricket burgers‘, which could offset the carbon demerits as presented by grilling.

Governor Hochul’s entry in the inauthenticity contest is certainly not the first one we will see this election year.  However, she has proudly planted her flag.

It will be interesting to see Warren’s response.


Sad Stephanopoulos Promotes Dick Cheney as Democrats Hope to Help Joe Biden

Posted originally on the conservative tree house on August 7, 2022 | sundance

George Stephanopoulos has a new hero not named Obama.  Skipping both the red and blue pills in favor of Xanax and whiskey, a visually verklempt Stephanopoulos uses Dick Cheney as the introduction to the 2022 midterm election victory map.  The last 3 seconds of this clip are funny as heck.

Pay no attention to the 67% of Americans who say things are getting even worse, and instead let’s cheer Dick Cheney and baby killing, after all – they are weirdly connected in a way.  Thus, George has figured the new DNC strategy.  Brilliant.


Vaccination of vulnerable groups against monkeypox virus (MPV) in a highly C-19 vaccinated population will drive adaptive evolution of MPV and ignite

Geert Vanden Bossche, DVM, PhD General Manager at Voice for Science and Solidarity | The biggest challenge in vaccinology: Countering immune evasion posted originally on TS New on Aug. 1, 2022

Exposure of a highly C-19 vaccinated population to monkeypox virus (MPV) spilling over from an animal reservoir promotes asymptomatic human-to-human transmission in susceptible sexual minority communities (SMCs). MPV infection in SMCs could therefore evolve more infectious viral variants that spread to all parts of a highly C-19 vaccinated population and thereby prevent establishment of herd immunity 

Increasing numbers of outbreaks of human monkeypox have been reported from across central and west Africa over the last 3-4 decades. Zoonotic infection with MPV in the current setting of limited smallpox vaccination and little orthopoxvirus immunity[1] in several parts of the world renders human populations more susceptible to contracting monkeypox disease. MPV has therefore been considered a well-suited candidate for a global epidemic. 

As productive poxvirus infection is mostly symptomatic and viral transmission almost exclusively occurs through close contact with an infected animal or person or via virus-contaminated objects, such as bedding or clothing, it has been generally acknowledged that natural epidemic outbreaks in humans can largely be contained through basic infection-prevention measures (including good hygiene practices). Unless the viral infection rate is high  (e.g., in densely populated areas and poor [environmental] hygiene conditions), it is difficult to imagine how MPV could evolve to adapt to the human population, let alone how it could ignite a multi-country epidemic or even a pandemic in countries where MPV is not an endemic zoonosis. Pandemics typically occur with pathogens that cause so-called acute self-limiting infection, meaning that they have the potential to spread asymptomatically before inducing a type of natural immunity that prevents productive infection upon subsequent exposure and, therefore, generates herd immunity. Whereas until recently many still tended to believe that the threat of a globally spread MPV was a myth, cases are now being reported globally (at least in all highly C-19 vaccinated parts of the world) to the extent that WHO has now declared MPV a health emergency of international concern—all of this has happened within just a few months. This does not provide enough time for population-level innate immunity to become sufficiently trained to turn MPV infection, which is typically symptomatic (so-called ‘acute self-limiting viral disease’, ASLVD) into an infection that is predominantly asymptomatic (so-called ‘acute self-limiting viral infection’, ASLVI) and can therefore much more easily spread between people. On the other hand, adaptation of a virus to a new host population never implies natural selection of less infectious viral variants, on the contrary. If neither viral evolution nor immune training is responsible for shifting symptomatic into asymptomatic viral transmission (thereby allowing MPV to spread more efficiently from person-to-person and eventually become a pandemic), other non-evolutionary disease-mitigating influences must be considered. As spread of MPV is now particularly expanding in countries with high C-19 vaccine coverage rate and as ASLVD-enabling viruses that are predominantly transmitted through close contact do not spread rapidly, there must be a link between the type of population-level immunity in highly C-19 vaccinated populations and the rapid expansion in prevalence of MPV cases. It’s also important to note that—so far— MPV disease symptoms in these populations have been rather ‘mild’ and predominantly manifest in individuals from the gay and bisexual male community. This already suggests that sexual contact, especially when the latter is at risk of traumatizing the skin or mucosa (e.g., in case of anogenital intercourses), facilitates symptomatic MPV infection. 

While I cannot unambiguously prove this, I strongly believe that the sudden emergence of a significant number of (mild) cases of MPV in highly C-19 vaccinated countries is not purely coincidental but related to enhanced activation of broadly reactive, MHC-unrestricted CD8+ T cells in vaccinees. I have previously reported on how a universal CTL (cytotoxic T lymphocyte) epitope can facilitate elimination of host cells infected with ASLVI- or ASLVD-enabling glycosylated viruses and thereby allow recovery from disease, however without inducing immunologic memory ( More specifically, MHC-unrestricted CD8+ T cells that now increasingly prevent C-19 disease in healthy vaccinees are the same as those required to abrogate productive infection with other glycosylated viruses that have evolved reduced susceptibility to our innate immune system[2], including poxviruses (

Given the enhanced immune activation of pathogen-nonspecific CTLs[3] in C-19 vaccinees, MPV infection in C-19 vaccinees is likely to become abrogated at an early stage of productive infection, thereby dampening productive MPV infection and potentially causing asymptomatic/ mild infection in sexual minority communities (SMCs) of a highly C-19 vaccinated population. Consequently, MPV infection may even fail to induce MPV-neutralizing antibodies (Abs) in vulnerable[4], C-19-vaccinated individuals that are immunologically naïve to MPV (i.e., today persons younger than 45 to 55 years of age, depending on the country). However, it is reasonable to assume that asymptomatic MPV infection may elicit short-lived, low affinity anti-MPV Abs in these individuals (as has, for example, been reported in case of asymptomatic infection with SARS-CoV-2 (SC-2; As asymptomatic infections promote viral transmission within these minority communities, the infection rate of MPV in this vulnerable subpopulation is likely to grow over time. This rise in viral infection rate will subsequently increase the likelihood for previously asymptomatically infected persons from SMCs to become re-infected while titers of their short-lived, low-affinity anti-MPV antibodies are still relatively high. Binding of such low-affinity, non-neutralizing Abs to the virus is thought to enhance viral infectiousness and could thereby cause a disease outbreak in these communities. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that the proportion of vulnerable individuals who develop virus-neutralizing Abs (i.e., upon their recovery from MPV disease[5]) in the C-19 vaccinated part of the population will increase over time. However, in vulnerable, non-C-19-vaccinated individuals, trained innate immune cells (i.e., NK cells) are likely to prevent MPV from breaking through this first line of immune defense and would therefore largely prevent priming of virus-neutralizing Abs. For the time being, symptomatic manifestations in highly C-19 vaccinated populations are predominantly mild and mostly occurring in SMCs. This suggests that even in cases of symptomatic infection, viral clearance via innate or adaptive cytolytic immune cells (in the case of non-C-19 vaccinated or C-19 vaccinated, respectively) is still effective enough to prevent more problematic symptomatology in most cases.

Rising virus-neutralizing Ab titers can only prevent monkey disease but not viral infection. Hence, re-exposure to MPV of C-19 vaccinated individuals who are in the process of seroconverting promotes natural selection of more infectious MPV immune escape variants while fostering asymptomatic transmission and thereby contributing to a further rise in viral infectious pressure. Due to the steadily growing infection rate in SMCs of highly C-19 vaccinated populations, the overall MPV-neutralizing Ab response in these communities is likely to exert suboptimal immune pressure on viral infectiousness and can therefore be expected to drive dominant circulation of naturally selected, more infectious MPV immune escape variants.  Based on all the above, the enhanced infection rate mediated by asymptomatic transmission of MPV in SMCs of highly C-19 vaccinated populations is likely to increase the probability of adaptive evolution of MPV in these communities. It is, therefore, critical to monitor the selective landscape of MPV as unfolded in SMCs of highly C-19 vaccinated populations in order to verify whether the evolutionary trajectory is shifting towards promoting natural selection and expansion of immune escape variants that are more infectious (as is smallpox virus, for example).

Vaccination of vulnerable groups (SMCs) against MPV is likely to accelerate adaptive evolution of MPV in highly C-19 vaccinated populations and could thereby raise the incidence of (severe) MPV disease in vulnerable subsets of non-C-19-vaccinated individuals and ignite multi-country epidemics of MPV in non-C-19-vaccinated animal and human populations that are immunologically naïve to orthopoxvirus  

Several countries are now about to start vaccination campaigns targeted at people who are at risk of contracting monkeypox disease using live attenuated, replication-incompetent smallpox vaccine. Both, individuals from SMCs engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors for MPV infection and close contacts of monkeypox cases (including very young children, pregnant women, elderly or immunocompromised individuals) are eligible for MPV vaccination ( Live attenuated, replication-incompetent orthopox (e.g., smallpox) vaccines prime virus-neutralizing Abs in the vast majority of both vaccinated and non-vaccinated individuals (i.e., individuals < 50y). However,  unlike live attenuated replication-competent orthopox vaccines[6], they do not train cell-based innate immunity. There can be no doubt that vaccination in the context of more infectious circulating MPV variants will further promote natural selection and dominant propagation of even more infectious immune escape variants and thereby allow MPV to evolve into a human pathogen exhibiting an even higher level of infectiousness (comparable to smallpox?). This situation is reminiscent of that which has been responsible for driving adaptative evolution of more infectious SC-2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants following C-19 mass vaccination campaigns. The evolutionary dynamics of MPV will only be expedited when vaccine coverage rates grow; they could eventually modify the current mode[7] and course of chain of MPV transmission such as to asymptomatically spread to all parts of a homogenously mixed, highly C-19 vaccinated population. This would increase the risk for C-19 unvaccinated subjects to contract MPV disease, especially for those who are particularly vulnerable to MPV disease because of Ab-mediated enhancement of viral infectiousness or enhanced susceptibility to MPV infection due to risky (sexual) behavior (see further below). Because of asymptomatic transmission, highly C-19 vaccinated populations would serve as a human reservoir of more infectious MPV immune escape variants. 

Spill-over of more infectious MPV variants to populations that are immunologically naïve to orthopoxvirus is likely to trigger epidemics of MPV in poorly C-19 vaccinated countries

It is reasonable to assume that populations which do not ‘benefit’ from hyperactivation of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells will become more susceptible to productive infection with new, more infectious MPV variants ( This applies, for example, to several different animal populations as well as to human populations in poorly C-19 vaccinated countries (e.g., in Africa). Asymptomatic infections in highly vaccinated C-19 countries are likely to promote spill-over events involving transmission of more infectious MPV variants from these highly C-19 vaccinated human reservoirs to vertebrate animals (possibly even including livestock) and poorly C-19 vaccinated human populations that are immunologically naïve to orthopoxvirus.
Asymptomatic transmission of more infectious MPV variants can also become problematic for the C-19 unvaccinated in highly C-19 vaccinated countries, particularly for C-19 unvaccinated children and vulnerable people (e.g., part of SMCs) who are immunologically naïve to orthopoxvirus. 

In young children, rapid re-infection subsequent to previous asymptomatic MPV infection by more infectious MPV variants is likely to entail a rise in cases of Ab-dependent enhancement of MP disease[8] whereas risky sexual behavior renders individuals from SMCs more susceptible to viral infection. One can therefore expect the incidence rate of monkeypox disease to increase in both, non-C19-vaccinated children and SMC members. 

Previous vaccination with smallpox (i.e., cowpox) vaccines will likely improve protection from MPV disease in the non-C-19-vaccinated but not in the C-19 vaccinated. 

While recall of Abs induced by vaccination against smallpox virus in the past will provide an additional layer of natural immunity in the unvaccinated, repetitive recall of Spike (S)-specific infection-enhancing Abs[9] in C-19 vaccinated individuals by circulating SC-2 variants will allow the latter to outcompete other glycosylated pathogens for internalization into mucosa-resident dendritic cells, thereby reducing or potentially even preventing recall of previously smallpox vaccine-induced Abs. This would imply that older (> 45-50y) C-19 unvaccinated individuals are likely to benefit from their smallpox-vaccination in the past whereas their C-19 vaccinated peers may not. However, as already mentioned, the infection can be expected to be largely asymptomatic/ mild in the vast majority[10] of vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals in highly C-19 vaccinated populations, even in the absence of previous smallpox vaccination. 

No child should be vaccinated against monkeypox during this C-19 pandemic

Vaccination with replication-incompetent orthopoxvirus-based vaccines of highly C-19 vaccinated (sub)populations is not only going to drive the expansion of more infectious MPV variants but will also have the same detrimental effect as C-19 vaccines in children: the continuous recall of vaccinal anti-MPV Abs (by circulating, more infectious MPV variants) will keep the innate Abs on the sideline and could thereby predispose the child to immunopathologies[11] ( 

But even replication-competent smallpox vaccines can put the child’s health at risk. Akin to all other live attenuated & replication-competent vaccines (e.g., childhood vaccines), these vaccines are known to come with a risk of side-effects:  

Health complications can occur after receiving the vaccine, and the risk of experiencing serious side effects must be weighed against the risk of experiencing a potentially fatal smallpox infection. The vaccine may cause myocarditis and pericarditis, which are inflammation and swelling of the heart and surrounding tissues and can be very serious. Based on clinical studies, myocarditis and/or pericarditis occur in 1 in 175 adults who get the vaccine for the first time” (

“Potentially life-threatening reactions could occur in 14-52 cases out of every million. According to CDC it is estimated that 1 to 2 people out of every 1 million people vaccinated could die”  

The risk of severe disease may significantly increase when these live attenuated, replication competent orthopoxvirus-based vaccines are administered to C-19-vaccinated children. S-directed Abs are thought to sideline the child’s innate immune Abs and thereby prevent NK cell-mediated innate immune recognition of host cells infected by glycosylated viruses (including pox viruses) []. This may enable live attenuated, replication competent orthopoxvirus (e.g., vaccinia virus) comprised within the vaccine to blow through the child’s first line of immune defense and cause (severe) monkeypox disease. 

Stated bluntly, vaccination of young children against MPV is at risk of provoking life-threatening disease. 

Overall conclusion 

The vast majority of C-19 vaccinees and C-19 unvaccinated individuals in highly C-19 vaccinated populations develop asymptomatic (or very mild) infection upon exposure to MPV. However, close and disruptive physical contact may promote viral entry through broken skin/ mucosa and is therefore more likely to cause symptomatic infection. Whereas strong training of cell-based innate immunity is likely to prevent productive infection of C-19 unvaccinated persons in highly C-19 vaccinated populations and contributes to herd immunity, hyperactivated cytolytic CD8+ T cells in C-19 vaccinated individuals can only enhance abrogation of productive infection, resulting in substantial mitigation of disease symptoms. 

Due to the current advanced stage of the evolutionary trajectory of the C-19 pandemic in highly C-19 vaccinated SMCs, MPV is likely to evolve more infectious/ pathogenic variants. Public health authorities in several highly C-19 vaccinated countries have now started rolling out MPV vaccination campaigns targeted at SMCs. MPV vaccination in the ‘at risk’ groups typically use live attenuated, non-replicating smallpox vaccines. Although these vaccines are much less problematic in terms of vaccine-induced side effects (they have even been approved for use in immunocompromised or immunodeficient people), they can only prevent orthopox (including smallpox) disease—not productive infection. As the type of protection conferred by these vaccines is solely based on the induction of antigen-specific, virus-neutralizing Abs, MPV vaccination programs using this type of vaccines will inevitably expedite adaptive evolution of MPV and hence, further promote dominant circulation of more infectious immune escape variants. Consequently, even small-scale deployment of live attenuated, non-replicating orthopox vaccines targeted at preventing  disease in vulnerable individuals are highly problematic in that they have the potential to rapidly turn highly C-19 vaccinated populations into a human reservoir for asymptomatic transmission of more infectious MPV variants to poorly C-19 vaccinated populations that are immunologically naïve to orthopoxvirus. Viral transmission from these reservoirs is therefore at risk of igniting multi-country epidemics in poorly C-19 vaccinated countries while increasing the risk of Ab-dependent enhancement of disease in young C-19 unvaccinated children and individuals at  high risk of exposure to MPV (due to risky behavior) living in highly C-19 vaccinated countries. 

Given the current epidemiologic situation, mandatory vaccination against monkeypox cannot be justified, regardless of C-19 vaccination status. In C-19 vaccinated populations, current vaccination campaigns will only promote further expansion of more infectious MPV variants. But even in non-C19-vaccinated countries, vaccination is not a reasonable option. This is because poxvirus epidemics do not generate herd immunity sensu stricto[12] and prevention, therefore, of world-wide poxvirus epidemics is only possible when the virus can be eradicated. However, eradication is only feasible provided there are no asymptomatic reservoirs and a global mass vaccination program is conducted with vaccines that are capable of preventing productive infection. The first condition is obviously not fulfilled since highly vaccinated countries now serve as asymptomatic reservoirs for MPV. The second condition cannot be fulfilled either since this would require usage of replication-competent vaccines, ideally in a pre-exposure prophylactic setting (or at least within a few days after suspected exposure). However, even replication-competent smallpox vaccines would not enable protection from productive infection by more infectious MPV immune escape variants for the latter will not be a good match for the vaccinal Abs and could, therefore, expedite propagation of more infectious variants in non-C-19 vaccinated populations too. Furthermore, side-effects caused by the existing replication-competent smallpox vaccines may raise additional concerns in regard of vaccine safety. 

Finally, no child should be vaccinated with any of the current C-19 vaccines ( and no non-C-19-vaccinated young child should be vaccinated with any type of smallpox vaccines. This is because the replication-competent vaccines may cause (severe) MPV disease in these young children whereas the replication-incompetent vaccines put them at risk of contracting immunopathologies. 

In conclusion, no C-19 unvaccinated person should engage in sexual behavior that is at risk of enhancing MPV infectiousness (e.g., anogenital intercourses) or be vaccinated with zoonotic orthopoxvirus types once human-to-human transmission of antigenically shifted (i.e., more infectious) MPV variants is occurring!  

The current MPV pandemic is to be considered an indirect consequence of the unfortunate C-19 mass vaccination program and does not yet constitute a public health emergency of international concern. However, each vaccination program that uses non-replicating vaccines targeted at immunologically naïve ‘at risk’ communities to fight ASLVI-enabling glycosylated viruses[13] will expedite the expansion in prevalence of more infectious immune escape viral variants. This is why the MPV vaccination campaigns  that are currently kicked off are not only likely to have a detrimental impact on individual health (particularly in C-19 unvaccinated children and vulnerable people) but should also be considered at risk of provoking a true public health emergency of international concern

However, as far as highly C-19 vaccinated countries are concerned, the evolution of MPV towards establishing an asymptomatic reservoir of more infectious MPV variants is merely a ‘side-effect’ of the ongoing evolutionary trajectory of SC-2 in these countries. I therefore predict that the imminent detrimental health consequences of the C-19 mass vaccination program will soon obviate the need for further speculation on how the MPV pandemic/ multi-country epidemic is going to evolve in industrialized countries and, therefore, in third-world countries.   


Vaccination of vulnerable groups against zoonotic influenza virus (MPV) in a highly C-19 vaccinated population will drive adaptive evolution of zoonotic influenza virus and ignite multi-country epidemics in C-19 unvaccinated countries 

The immunological mechanisms underlying asymptomatic transmission of MPV from highly C-19 vaccinated populations to immunologically orthopoxvirus-naïve, C-19 unvaccinated individuals or poorly C-19 unvaccinated populations also largely apply to a zoonotic influenza virus. This is to say that vaccination (with a non-replicating zoonotic flu vaccine) of a C-19 vaccinated subpopulation that is at high risk of contracting zoonotic influenza infection is prone to further promoting the expansion of zoonotic flu virus and causing (severe) influenza disease in vulnerable people from the C-19 unvaccinated part of the population.

Which individuals are to be considered vulnerable to zoonotic influenza virus?

Whereas orthopoxviruses originating from various animal species induce cross-neutralizing Abs, influenza viruses from animal species do not induce broadly cross-neutralizing Abs. Individuals who received smallpox (i.e., cowpox-based) vaccines in the past are therefore not prone to developing Ab-dependent enhancement of viral infectiousness upon subsequent exposure to MPV. However, asymptomatic human-to-human transmission of an antigenically shifted influenza variant spilling over from an animal reservoir (e.g., birds) may become particularly problematic in individuals who have previously recovered from productive infection with a common seasonal influenza virus type or who have previously been vaccinated against predominantly circulating influenza virus types (i.e., primarily the elderly and people with co-morbidities are who are otherwise immune suppressed). Zoonotic infection of these individuals with an antigenically shifted viral variant (most likely avian influenza) will likely lead to more and more cases of Ab-dependent enhancement of influenza disease[14] in humans. However, severe disease is unlikely to occur due to trained cell-based innate immunity (in C-19 unvaccinated persons) or cell-based adaptive immunity (in C-19 vaccinated persons). Should public health authorities recommend vaccination of this vulnerable group against the zoonotic influenza virus (most like, avian influenza virus), we will undoubtedly witness circulation of more infectious variants in highly vaccinated populations, resulting in enhanced rates of disease predominantly in C-19 unvaccinated children (because of a higher chance of re-infection shortly after previous exposure) and individuals who have previously been primed with common (seasonal) influenza virus types.

Similar to the epidemic predictions made for MPV, asymptomatic transmission of zoonotic influenza (most likely avian influenza) from highly  C-19 vaccinated populations will likely give rise to multi-country epidemics of zoonotic influenza in poorly C-19 vaccinated populations that are immunologically naïve to the transmitted zoonotic influenza virus.    

Similar also to the risks associated with MPV vaccination of young children, immunization of young children with any type of zoonotic influenza vaccine is at risk of causing (severe) zoonotic influenza disease (i.e., in the case of replication-competent vaccines) or  immunopathologies (i.e., in the case of replication-incompetent vaccines). 

In conclusion, no C-19 unvaccinated person should be vaccinated with common (seasonal) or zoonotic influenza virus types once human-to-human transmission of antigenically shifted (i.e., more infectious) influenza variants is occurring!  


1. Populations aged < 50y have not been vaccinated in the past against smallpox. The smallpox vaccine uses live attenuated, replication-competent  cowpox (vaccinia) virus and largely protects against monkeypox disease.

2 Infections with these viruses typically cause acute self-limiting viral disease

3 As the current SC-2 variants are further strengthening their infectiousness, presumably as a result of stronger
binding to the infection-enhancing Abs (,
more SC-2 virions are internalized into migrating dendritic cells and thereby contribute to activation of cytolytic
CD8+ T cells

4 For the purpose of this manuscript, ‘vulnerable’ refers to individuals from sexual minority communities (SMCs),
wherein SMCs refer to gay and bisexual male communities engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors for MPV infection
(e.g., anogenital intercourses)

5 Disease in vulnerable, C-19 vaccinated individuals occurs when the virus breaks through the cytolytic immune defense provided by the hyperactivated CTLs

6 Regardless of safety concerns about potential side-effects, live attenuated, replication-competent orthopox
vaccines will not be effective when used in highly C-19 vaccinated populations. This is because elimination of MPV-
infected cells by cytotoxic innate or adaptive immune cells (i.e., trained innate NK cells or CTLs in the non-C19-
vaccinated or C-19 vaccinated, respectively) will largely prevent ‘vaccine take’.

7 Enhanced intrinsic infectiousness could even enable airborne transmission (e.g., via particle/ droplet aerosol) as
in the case of smallpox

8 Re-infection with MPV in the presence of non-neutralizing, low-affinity anti-MPV Abs enhances viral
infectiousness and, therefore, disease in young, C-19 unvaccinated children

9 These Abs are currently making C-19 vaccinees more and more susceptible to productive re-infection with SC-2

10 The additional protective effect of past vaccination with smallpox vaccines might predominantly benefit the
elderly (&gt; 65 y) and vulnerable people.

11 Because of deficient or insufficient education of NK cells to sense virus-associated self-mimicking peptides
expressed on the surface of host cells infected by said ASLVI- or ASLVD-enabling glycosylated viruses
education-of-innate-immune-effector-cells-nk-cells ).

12  Herd immunity sensu stricto relates to a level of naturally induced, protective immunity that has been established in the majority of the population and is high enough to protect the remainder of that population by virtue of diminished infectious transmission.

13  Although monkey pox is an ASLVD, it can be considered an ASLVI when spreading in a highly C-19 vaccinated population at this stage of the C-19 pandemic (i.e., due to hyperactivation of cytolytic CD8+ T-cells)  

14 This is because the antigenically shifted immune escape variant from the animal reservoir will not properly match
the vaccine-induced Abs.